We use a lot of terms and phrases about SEO and digital marketing on the Rankings.io blog. Sometimes it is easy to forget that not everyone knows what we are talking about. A post may mention a service, tactic or term without elaborating on what it means.
That is why we have created this comprehensive glossary for lawyers. It contains numerous terms and phrases used in the digital marketing and SEO world. It also contains many related specifically to attorneys. Use the navigation below to jump around, and feel free to leave suggestions in the comment section on ways we can improve the glossary or add to it.
Google’s search and display advertising platform. AdWords was one of the first successful ad products that monetized the search industry. Attorneys can use AdWords to bid on keyword phrases and have text ads show up in search engine results pages. They can also use the platform to target websites who are AdSense partners and show ads to those site’s visitors.
This is the other side of the coin for Google’s AdWords platform. Website owners can become AdSense publishers by applying to show Google’s ads on their website. AdSense publishers are paid per click on ads that they show on their website pages.
Wikipedia — Google AdSense
This is a legal networking and resource website for consumers and attorneys. It is structured as a question and answer forum where people can go to receive advice on their legal situations. For lawyers it is a place to enhance their professional brand. Attorneys must be a pro member to answer questions, and the platform is reserved for licensed experts only.
An algorithm is a process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations. During the information age, algorithms are commonly used to refer to problem-solving scenarios involving computers. For example, Google’s core algorithm is perhaps one of the most well-known mainstream algorithms.
Also known as alt text, this is an attribute of the image (<img />) tag. It is used to describe an image because search engines cannot decipher what images are about just by crawling the file name.
They also serve as a fail-safe for when images cannot be rendered by a browser so a user can still determine what an image depicts. This behavior is common place for screen readers.
Anchor Text Distribution
A measurement of the portions of text and objects used to hyperlink web pages together. Why is anchor text distribution important in SEO? According to experts, keyword-rich anchor text offers a powerful signal to search engines.
This “signal” indicates that a page receiving an inbound link is relevant to the topic of the anchor text. SEOs watch anchor text distribution closely when building links because an unnatural distribution can indicate to search engines that a webmaster might be trying to manipulate search.
Attorney Article Directories
These are directories that specialize in legal content and/or legal website listings. Most cater to regular people who are looking for legal advice on a topic. Common directories include Targetlaw.com, Lawyers.com and NOLO.
These are optimization techniques that relate specifically to marketing legal professionals and their services in search. SEO in general is a set of tactics, methodologies, and behaviors that allow a site to rank as high as possible for a given keyword phrase. Attorney SEO is similar although customized for the legal industry.
A link leading from one site to another. As it relates to SEO, links are strong indicators for the popularity, relevance and authority of a website. Links are also a primary signal used in search engine algorithms as to the relevance and importance of a given web page.
Black Hat SEO
Optimization tactics that are considered deceptive, misleading or used exclusively for the purpose of manipulating search results.
This is short for the original term ‘weblog’ and is a specialized website for self-publishing content. Blogs have grown significantly after the turn of the millennium as internet access became more ubiquitous and more advanced. Blogs are an excellent way for lawyers to position their firm as an authority in its space, create more pages to be indexed in search and ultimately drive more traffic to their websites.
Also known as a “web bot,” “Internet bot,” “web robot” or (as when named after the company that produced it) Googlebot or Bingbot; bots are software applications that perform automated tasks on the Internet. For the most part, bots perform structurally repetitive and simple tasks.
As it relates to SEO, bots crawl the web and index content for search engines to store in their databases.
The rate at which website visitors view one page of a website and then leave. It is theorized that bounce rate has an impact on where a website ranks in search. The theory is that if a page is consistently shown for a given keyword phrase, searchers click on the search result and then leave without looking at any other pages, the page may not be a good match for that particular keyword phrase.
Also known as a dead link, these are hyperlinks that are no longer working on a web page because the target page no longer exists, the URL has changed, or there is some other error with the target site.
This term has gained a reputation on the web as an SEO word, but it actually has its roots in computer science. It is a process for converting data that has more than one possible representation into a standard form.
In search engine optimization, it refers to choosing a standard URL for representing a page. For example, indicating to a search engine whether the www or non-www version of a page is the canonical (or standard) version.
Circle of Legal Trust
A non-commercial website founded by a group of attorneys. The goal is to educate and mentor other attorneys in the practices of online marketing and outreach.
The COLT is a great resource for attorneys who are seeking advice and resources on how to market themselves or their firms online.
The practice of showing one set of content or a full web page to search engines and a completely different set of content or web pages to visitors.
This stands for “Content Management System.” A CMS is used to make the construction and upkeep of a website easy for a novice to do with little or no programming knowledge.
There are tons of CMS systems both commercial and home-grown. Some of the most popular mainstream systems include WordPress, Joomla and Drupal.
A method of organizing content on a website. In SEO, content umbrellas help website owners create websites that perform well in search. The practice involves creating an overarching theme for a website, then creating sub-themes or categories for the connected pages.
As it relates to SEO and digital marketing, a conversion happens when a visitor to a web page becomes a lead, customer, subscriber or is a part of some other goal the website owner is trying to achieve. For lawyers, a conversion is commonly a form fill, a phone call, or a subscriber to an email list. Conversions are often tracked using conversion tracking code that can be provided by ad platforms like Google, Bing, Facebook or Twitter.
These are hyperlinks that pass PageRank (also known as Link Juice) to other web pages they are linked to. Links are configured and treated as dofollow by default. Links that are not dofollow are nofollow (see nofollow).
Substantial blocks of content on the same or different domains that are exactly the same. In SEO, duplicate content refers to content that is already present in a search engines index. Duplicate content can be an issue for websites because a search engine may not index content that is substantially similar to other content already in its database.
For the most part, duplicate content is not a huge worry. There are many kinds of duplicate content that are not malicious in nature. Examples include privacy policies, printer-friendly or mobile versions of pages or boilerplate content.
Error Pages (404)
These are pages that serve as placeholders when a resource (some other page) cannot be found by a web browser. Hosting providers typically generate their own error pages for all subscribers. Webmasters can also generate their own customized error pages.
A business unit of Thomson Reuters, Findlaw provides online legal information and marketing services for lawyers. For consumers like students, small business owners and regular people it is a free online legal resource to get answers to common legal questions.
Wikipedia — About Findlaw
Grey Hat SEO
While definitions may vary, this term generally refers to SEO tactics that fall into a grey area of morality. It refers to practices that may not be inherently deceptive, but that are still frowned upon by search engines (such as building links manually).See also:
Rankings.io — White, Grey and Black Hat Lawyer SEO
The pound or number sign (#) commonly used on a variety of social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter and Google Plus) to identify a particular topic area or thread. Hashtags are used to group similar topic areas. Marketers have leveraged them to gain exposure for content or promotions by using hashtags of trending topics or those that are very popular at a given point in time.
Unique uses — Twitter, American Express let users buy with Hashtags
Twitter — Using Hashtags
A web-based social media management software tool. HootSuite is one of the most popular free social media management tools. It allows lawyers to publish content to all of the major social networks at once, schedule posts, monitor feeds, respond to interaction and generate reports on social engagement.
Hootsuite — About the Company
A marketing concept coined by Seth Godin and proliferated by the likes of HubSpot and Marketo. It refers to the concept of a non-interruptive style of marketing where a brand becomes an authority and offers free and useful tools, advice, content or other things in order to attract new buyers.
Wikipedia — What is Inbound Marketing
Seth Godin — www.Inbound.com
A legal online marketing and website generation service for law firms and attorneys. The company’s mission is also to make legal resources easily accessible to consumers.
Justia.com — About the company
A practice used by marketers to determine popular and/or profitable keywords used by searchers. Another component of keyword research is determining searcher intent or what is meant by a searcher when they enter a query into a search engine.This type of research is the foundation of many search marketing activities including PPC, SEO, landing page design, and blogging. There are various methods and tools that are used to generate the information needed to make sound keyword marketing choices.
Moz Q&A — Keyword Research Methods
Tools — Keyword Planner for Lawyers
Methods — (KEI) Keyword Effectiveness Index
The page that an Internet user lands on after they click on an ad or link. Any web page can be a landing page, but not all pages are appropriate landing pages.The term landing page is a marketing term and does not necessarily refer to a specialized configuration of programming code or arrangement of elements on a web page. Landing pages are crucial components in an online conversion funnel.
Hubspot — What is a Landing Page [FAQ]
Ash, Tim; Maura, Ginty; and Page, Rich — Landing Page Optimization: The Definitive Guide to Testing and Tuning for Conversions
Law Firm Marketing
Marketing practices that are tailored to promote legal services.
Lawyer Internet Memes
A meme is a unit that carries cultural ideas, practices or symbols from one person to another through writing, speech or gestures. Memes related to the legal profession found on the internet are typically images that parody the profession using pop-culture icons.
Wikipedia — What is an internet meme
Rankings.io — Social and SEO Benefits of Lawyer Memes
An article directory that specializes in in content that relates to the law and legal profession.
Lawyers.com — About the company
Websites that specialize in maintaining listings of legal-related websites. Directories, in general, have long been targets for SEOs as viable ways to build links. While their value has diminished over the years, some are still good places to submit a website.
Also known as link authority, page authority, and PageRank, it refers to the value passed from one page to another as seen by a search engine. Link juice is essentially the vote that one web page gives to another when it is linked. The authority that any given web page has is influenced by a variety of factors including age, quality and quantity of inbound links pointing at it, the content of the page, and its perceived status in the offline world among many other factors.
Search Engine Land — What is PageRank
A website that is identified by a webmaster or marketers as a viable candidate to get a link to their own or a client website. Note that this search marketing term should not be confused with the link target attribute used to specify how a new window will load.
Moz — Link Building Strategies
Also known as link marketing, this is content that attracts organic links. Common forms of link bait include well-written blog posts, infographics, viral video and any other content that would entice someone to link to the website where the content resides.
While not exactly efficient, this approach can often produce the best results in terms of link building. By becoming an authority in a given space or producing content that people love, the time spent on manually building links to a domain can be reduced.
The practice of applying search engine optimization strategies to a website so it ranks well for searchers in a specific geographic location, typically within a radius circle of a business location.
For some industries, success is hinged on serving a clientele held captive by geographic location. For example legal services, restaurants, health care providers, auto dealers, and barbers are all businesses that depend on local clientele. Those local customers still utilize search engines to find information on local businesses. Well-done local optimization ensures that information can be found, indexed and displayed by search engines in an effective and appealing way.
Search Engine Journal — The Definitive Guide to Local SEO
Rankings.io — Local Law Firm SEO
Long Tail Keywords
Keywords that are more targeted because of their specific nature and generally easier to rank for in search because they are less widely used in SEO. Even though they are less popular, long tail keywords account for the bulk of user queries, and can be much better for conversions on a website.
Long tail keywords are much more helpful in determining searcher intent. For example, “six foot Ardent fishing pole” gives a much more in-depth look at what a searcher is looking for as opposed to the phrase “fishing poles.”
Search Engine Watch — The Resurgence of Long Tail Keywords
Wikipedia — Long Tail Keywords
This phrase refers to Google having a human employee manually demote or remove a website from the engine’s index. Manual actions can happen for a lot of reasons, but in general, it is because a webmaster has been using deceptive practices in an effort to manipulate search.See also:
Google — Manual Actions
Google Webmaster Blog — View Manual Webspam Actions in Webmaster Tools
An HTML and XHTML element that describes a web page to search engines. Meta descriptions used to play a more prominent role in search engine rankings. Search has evolved to use much more sophisticated means of determining the relevance of a web page to a query. Despite this fact, meta descriptions still have a place in SEO and can influence not only rankings, but a user’s decision to click on a listing in a SERP.
Google — Review your Page Titles and Snippets
These are elements of HTML that describe the content of a web page. There are many different kinds of meta tags that serve different purposes. Some (like the keywords meta tag) have depreciated over time and are no longer used by leading search engines to determine the relevance of a web page.
Google — What are Meta Tags
These are keyword phrases used in search advertising platforms. They instruct search engines to not show ads when the negative keyword phrases are used in a searcher’s query. Negative keywords can help prevent ads from showing to users who may find them irrelevant.
Google — Negative Keywords
These are links that do not pass PageRank to the page they are linked to. Nofollow links are configured by placing a rel=nofollow attribute in an HTML anchor tag. This instructs search engines to not follow the link and not pass PageRank.
This is a value of the attribute CONTENT in the robots meta tag. It instructs robots that are crawling a web page to leave and not save a cached version of the page in a search engine’s index. Note that robots can be configured to not obey meta tags. Google and other search engines obey these directives for the most part, but more malicious bots will not. Especially those that are malware bots.
Wikipedia — What is Noindex
A legal directory that helps consumers get answers to legal questions online. It is a subsidiary of Internet Brands. Among other information, the site publishes do-it-yourself legal guides and software.
NOLO — www.NOLO.com
Search engine optimization techniques that take place away from the domain being optimized. For example, generating business listings, building links, and creating active social networks are off-site SEO tactics.See also:
SEO Book — Off-site SEO
Search engine optimization techniques that take place on a website itself. For instance, enhancing page speed, writing content, blogging, configuring website content architecture and other tasks are all on-site or on-page SEO techniques.
Search Engine Journal — 12 Basic On-Site SEO Tactics
Inbound links built to a domain without any influence on the part of a site owner. In other words, these are links that happen naturally.
As it relates to SEO, this happens when a website owner performs more SEO tasks than are necessary to get a site to rank well in search. In other words too much SEO to a website can be a bad thing. This includes things like unnatural linking patterns and keyword stuffed page content.
Rankings.io — 15 Ways an Attorney Can Get an SEO Penalty
Google’s proprietary metric developed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin (founders of Google) for the authority a web page has. PageRank is determined by the quality and quantity of web pages that are linked to one another. While extremely complicated, the basic underlying theory is that the more authoritative pages a web page has pointing at it through hyperlinks, the more important that page becomes. PageRank remains a very powerful ranking factor in Google’s core algorithm.
PPC Match Types
This refers to the ways keywords can be configured in an AdWords account in order to trigger ads only when a user exercises particular (and perceived) searcher intent.
Disruptive Advertising — Become an Expert in Exact Match Keywords
Disruptive Advertising — Why AdWords Broad Match Will Never Be Cool
The position of a web page among other web pages in a list of search engine results. Many different factors go into where a web page ranks and these factors vary from search engine to search engine.
When a link is provided by a target website in exchange for a link from an originating website or vis versa. Basically this is a ‘link trade’. I link to you and you link to me.
SEO Moz Forum — Info on Reciprocal Links
SEO by The Sea — What is a Reciprocal Link
Redirects (301, 302)
Codes that indicate to a search engine that a resource has moved. A 301 redirect refers to when a resource has moved permanently. A 302 redirect refers to when a resource has moved temporarily.See also:
Google — Redirecting URLs
A text file used to instruct bots on which sections of a site are appropriate to crawl and index and which ones are off limits.
An acronym for Rich Site Summary but often referred to as Really Simple Syndication. RSS is a web feed standard used by many website owners and bloggers to push content to subscribers or other websites.
Wikipedia — What is RSS
This acronym stands for “Search Engine Marketing,” and it refers to a variety of tactics including SEO, paid search campaigns and other marketing initiatives involving search.Semantic Search
This is a term that refers to serving results to users not because of relevant content, but because of the relationships the result have with one another.
Semantic search has been pioneered by Google and brought to life by the company’s work on Knowledge Graph. For instance, when you search for the place “Lake Tahoe,” not only do you get documents related to the place, but information that is related to the place such as the depth of the lake, the types of species that inhabit it, its geographic location and other data.
Wikipedia — What is Semantic Search
Cambridge Semantics — Semantic Search and the Semantic Web
Google — The Knowledge Graph – Inside Search
This is the acronym for “Search Engine Optimization.” The practice has enjoyed growth and added exposure in recent years. Even though it has been pushed further into the mainstream, the practice has been around since the beginning of search on the web.
Search Engine Land — What is SEO
This is the acronym for “Search Engine Results Page.”
As it relates to WordPress and other CMSs, a tag is a keyword phrase or term used to group similar content together. Users reading an article or blog post about one topic and view tags (typically at the bottom of the post) that will lead them to other similar content.
Tiered Link Building
This refers to a strategy where groups of links are built to a website on other web properties and then another (second) tier of links is built to those sites flowing PageRank through many tiers back to a main website (also called a money site).
Matthew Woodward — The Ultimate Guide to Tiered Link Building
An HTML element that identifies a web page and its topic area.
Moz — What is a title tag?
As it relates to marketing, a vertical characterizes a company as serving customers in a specific industry or profession.
Wikipedia — Vertical Market
White Hat SEO
Optimization tactics that are considered moral and/or acceptable. Generally, those tactics that promote a good user experience.Widget (aka gadget or gizmo)
An add-on software enhancement that can add functionality to a website.
Wikipedia — What is a Widget